Washington DC Open 2008


Date
May 17, 2008
City
Alexandria, Virginia, United States
Venue

Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology

Address
6560 Braddock Road, Alexandria, VA 22312
Website
Washington DC Open 2008 website
WCA Delegate
Bob Burton
Contact

Mitchell Stern

Information
Events
Main event
Competitors
51
Registration requirements
This competition is over, click here to display the registration requirements it used.
Highlights
Click here to display the highlights of the competition.

Jason Baum won with an average of 13.10 seconds in the 3x3x3 Cube event. Mitchell Stern finished second (13.68) and John Tamanas finished third (15.78).

World records: Chris Hardwick‎ 5x5x5 Blindfolded 15:22.00 (single).

North American records: Dan Cohen‎ 5x5x5 Cube 1:38.59 (average), Clock 11.78 (single), and Pyraminx 5.66 (single); Tim Reynolds‎ Pyraminx 8.85 (average).

Andrew Fleckenstein - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 28 23.81 32.43 United States 1:08.2523.8126.6536.6334.02
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 13 9.00 9.99 United States 9.8410.0610.0612.489.00
Magic Final 7 2.76 3.79 United States 4.563.657.963.152.76

Baian Liu - China WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 25 25.80 29.55 China 33.4025.8026.81DNF28.43
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 18 2:20.53 China 2:51.502:20.53
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 9 DNF DNF China DNFDNFDNF
3x3x3 Fewest Moves Final 7 DNF China DNF
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 14 1:49.25 China DNF1:49.25

Bill Berry - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 26 21.93 30.54 United States 27.4721.9335.9530.3833.77
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 19 2:22.08 United States 2:22.082:22.86
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 12 5:31.41 United States 5:31.415:39.64

Bob Burton - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Second 17 22.28 25.76 United States 22.2823.0324.5629.6839.09
First 14 19.71 21.18 United States 19.7123.3820.1520.4322.95
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 11 6.86 9.20 United States 26.036.869.929.188.51
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 12 1:50.33 United States 1:56.531:50.33
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 10 5:02.65 United States 5:33.075:02.65
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 6 4:18.46 DNF United States DNFDNF4:18.46
3x3x3 Fewest Moves Final 6 52 United States 52
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 7 36.28 39.53 United States 38.3449.8642.2836.2837.97
Clock Final 1 15.15 15.97 United States 17.5115.2415.15
Pyraminx Final 6 9.81 20.98 United States 28.0019.7719.939.8123.24
Magic Final 3 1.24 1.53 United States 1.331.37DNF1.241.90
Master Magic Final 3 3.82 3.93 United States 3.973.914.463.823.90

Chang Sham - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 49 1:15.91 2:02.27 United States DNF3:18.361:15.911:20.021:28.44

Chris Hardwick - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Final 6 14.51 16.65 United States 36.1214.9219.4315.6114.51
Second 3 13.43 14.70 United States 19.7213.4314.1616.1513.78
First 4 15.14 16.29 United States 16.2215.7016.9617.3815.14
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 6 5.62 8.42 United States 9.157.278.845.6213.11
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 1 1:56.78 DNF United States DNF1:56.78DNF
3x3x3 Fewest Moves Final 1 32 United States 32
4x4x4 Blindfolded Final 1 DNF United States DNFDNF
5x5x5 Blindfolded Final 1 15:22.00 WR United States DNF15:22.00
Magic Final 6 2.00 3.18 United States 2.003.5514.252.553.44

Chris Parlette - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Second 18 21.96 25.78 United States 29.7727.4723.7526.1121.96
First 18 26.27 28.46 United States 30.3429.4528.1227.8126.27
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 15 2:09.80 United States 2:10.462:09.80
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 9 4:08.56 United States 4:37.714:08.56
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 8 7:32.77 DNF United States DNF7:32.77DNF

Christopher Sarran - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 27 26.30 32.10 United States 26.3027.8031.7436.7538.46

Dan Cohen - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Final 9 15.25 17.54 United States 27.3415.5615.2518.0818.97
Second 4 13.09 14.93 United States 16.4413.7819.0213.0914.58
First 2 13.62 15.69 United States 18.4315.5815.0316.4613.62
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 2 4.63 6.66 United States 7.258.836.616.124.63
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 1 54.06 1:04.82 United States 1:03.121:13.3158.641:12.6954.06
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 1 1:30.21 1:38.59 NAR United States 1:30.211:44.311:32.941:38.531:46.44
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 3 2:25.27 DNF United States DNF2:25.27DNF
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 3 23.74 30.64 United States 44.4425.6827.8723.7438.36
Clock Final 4 11.78 NAR DNF United States DNF12.7511.78
Pyraminx Final 2 5.66 NAR 11.19 United States 5.6614.7812.156.6318.15
Square-1 Final 3 26.01 53.96 United States 1:22.0953.7826.01
Magic Final 2 1.21 1.33 United States DNF1.251.401.341.21
Master Magic Final 1 2.56 3.55 United States 4.132.863.655.002.56
3x3x3 Multi-Blind Old Style Final 1 DNF United States DNF

Dan Pham - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 31 33.53 34.94 United States 35.3133.5334.7636.8434.75

Daniel Bennett - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 36 43.40 47.38 United States 51.6543.401:20.4043.7146.77
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 21 14.05 United States 14.0516.09
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 25 4:09.11 United States 4:10.654:09.11

Daniel Beyer - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Second 11 18.03 20.30 United States 18.8321.9430.2218.0320.12
First 12 17.16 19.96 United States 18.98DNF19.8917.1621.02
4x4x4 Blindfolded Final 1 DNF United States DNFDNF
5x5x5 Blindfolded Final 2 DNF United States DNFDNS

Daniel Saha - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Final 10 16.41 17.73 United States 19.8416.9116.4332.0116.41
Second 10 14.60 18.95 United States 19.8418.3319.1514.6019.37
First 11 13.56 19.81 United States 20.8420.3119.2519.8713.56
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 9 DNF DNF United States DNFDNFDNF

Daniel Willson - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 40 45.22 57.60 United States 45.2254.0658.211:00.54DNF

Douglas Mathes - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 33 30.95 41.31 United States 46.8244.8030.9536.9642.16

Edward Bae - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 43 49.50 1:10.24 United States 1:16.02DNF49.501:18.6556.05

Ellery Murdock - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Second 15 20.70 24.30 United States 20.7023.3122.6933.7126.91
First 16 21.55 23.46 United States 22.1133.1426.1121.5522.15
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 15 7.77 10.82 United States 12.157.7711.888.4315.00
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 11 1:42.31 United States 1:42.311:52.86
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 3 2:55.87 3:16.57 United States 3:29.682:58.713:21.313:32.672:55.87

Ethan Rosen - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 30 30.05 34.70 United States 34.5334.62DNF34.9630.05
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 5 7.65 8.31 United States 10.077.807.657.819.33
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 21 2:47.73 United States 2:47.733:01.08
3x3x3 Fewest Moves Final 7 DNF United States DNF
Clock Final 3 28.49 29.47 United States 28.9428.4930.98
Pyraminx Final 7 14.24 28.93 United States 14.2459.3426.3632.3128.11
Square-1 Final 4 2:01.03 2:07.42 United States 2:09.962:11.272:01.03

Gavin Nelson - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Second 13 18.28 22.29 United States 22.90DNF18.2821.5822.38
First 13 18.78 21.02 United States 22.4319.4321.1922.8618.78
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 7 7.84 8.83 United States 8.4612.3910.038.007.84
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 5 1:24.54 1:37.13 United States 1:28.691:57.311:33.271:24.541:49.44
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 7 3:31.13 United States 3:31.133:47.05
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 8 41.00 47.40 United States 42.0048.6641.0051.5552.40
Pyraminx Final 4 8.60 15.02 United States 15.5931.008.6013.0616.40
Square-1 Final 1 36.21 44.63 United States 39.5936.2158.09

Ian Howells - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 45 1:12.46 1:21.08 United States 1:23.621:12.461:20.501:24.761:19.11

Isagani Esteron - Philippines WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Final 4 15.55 15.90 Philippines 34.3015.7416.0915.8715.55
Second 8 15.77 17.30 Philippines 15.7716.5917.5517.7618.44
First 9 15.94 19.21 Philippines 15.9428.0217.1824.1416.30
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 14 5.28 10.35 Philippines 5.2821.2814.258.118.69
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 4 1:23.33 1:25.96 NR Philippines 1:40.231:23.631:27.781:23.331:26.47
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 4 2:45.34 DNF Philippines DNF2:45.343:11.90
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 5 30.52 35.28 Philippines 30.5237.5637.1848.0331.09

Jaclyn Sawler - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 39 46.40 52.58 United States 57.8156.8454.0446.4046.86
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 25 26.13 United States 26.1329.44
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 23 3:19.08 United States 3:19.083:42.31
Pyraminx Final 9 14.03 34.12 United States 44.8751.4634.4423.0614.03
Magic Final 5 1.88 2.46 United States 2.232.751.882.412.85
Master Magic Final 4 4.74 5.55 United States 4.745.524.846.297.28

Jason Baum - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Final 1 11.07 13.10 United States 11.0715.3712.1813.1214.01
Second 1 10.43 13.83 United States 12.1610.4316.4416.7812.90
First 3 13.22 16.01 United States 13.2217.6915.33DNF15.02
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 4 6.92 7.89 United States 7.716.928.509.227.47
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 3 1:01.26 1:15.44 United States 1:30.771:14.521:01.261:23.651:08.16
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 2 2:50.84 3:02.57 United States 2:50.842:58.223:13.002:56.50DNF
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 2 2:08.12 DNF United States DNF2:08.12DNF
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 1 24.85 27.05 United States 27.0826.9727.0924.8531.69
Square-1 Final 2 40.31 44.88 United States 50.0840.3144.26
4x4x4 Blindfolded Final 1 DNF United States DNFDNS
5x5x5 Blindfolded Final 2 DNF United States DNFDNS

John Tamanas - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Final 3 12.93 15.78 United States 16.8917.9016.5212.9313.92
Second 6 14.71 16.67 United States 17.3018.7916.5216.1814.71
First 6 13.30 16.84 United States 15.6222.2816.9413.3017.95
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 8 8.28 8.98 United States 9.8810.468.288.538.53
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 6 1:26.60 1:40.33 United States 1:41.231:26.601:44.661:52.181:35.11
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 9 39.75 52.15 United States 44.2758.581:16.1553.6139.75

Joseph Gibney - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Final 8 15.96 16.99 United States 16.3615.9617.1117.5018.56
Second 9 15.69 18.25 United States 19.6520.5517.4617.6515.69
First 8 15.08 18.62 United States 17.7821.6020.6817.3915.08
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 9 7.33 8.99 United States 8.489.227.339.2613.50
3x3x3 Fewest Moves Final 3 42 United States 42

Justin Kwon - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 32 33.87 37.30 United States 36.8340.6534.6540.4333.87
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 16 8.46 11.48 United States 8.468.9618.4714.1311.36

Kate Nelson - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
Magic Final 4 1.43 2.17 United States 1.431.543.491.493.49

Kevin Hu - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 22 25.11 29.02 United States 25.1131.52DNF25.2230.31
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 20 12.44 United States 13.5112.44
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 13 1:56.40 United States 1:56.402:17.08
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 13 1:09.38 United States 1:31.131:09.38

Kevin Zhou - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 50 27.62 DNF United States 35.6227.62DNFDNF27.73
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 18 11.56 United States 11.5613.09
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 20 2:40.94 United States 2:42.412:40.94

Kian Barry - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 21 21.99 28.88 United States 33.9637.4228.5824.1021.99
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 17 10.58 United States 19.0510.58
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 17 2:16.82 United States 3:08.272:16.82

Kyle Barry - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 24 25.03 29.36 United States 28.6628.27DNF31.1525.03
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 19 12.27 United States 12.2712.69
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 16 2:13.96 United States 2:26.882:13.96
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 11 5:12.06 United States 5:12.06DNF

Matt Young - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 37 43.08 51.95 United States 55.0347.531:20.6053.3043.08

Michael Sarran - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 47 1:23.15 1:35.63 United States 1:49.331:35.771:28.461:23.151:42.65

Mike Bunting - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 44 1:07.44 1:18.19 United States 1:14.381:19.591:20.591:22.001:07.44

Mitchell Stern - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Final 2 12.20 13.68 United States 13.1515.5312.2014.5513.34
Second 2 12.93 13.86 United States 14.5312.9412.9314.1114.53
First 1 11.32 14.02 United States 15.2714.1111.3214.1613.80
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 1 3.69 5.84 United States 3.696.187.065.635.70
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 2 55.50 1:09.60 United States 1:13.9355.501:09.251:23.251:05.62
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 2 23.51 28.17 United States 23.5127.1830.9730.6326.70

Niko Kauffman - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Second 16 22.77 25.34 United States 31.6927.0022.7724.4824.53
First 10 16.88 19.59 United States 21.3020.0921.8016.8817.38

Parker Magness - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 23 24.30 29.27 United States 31.0529.8026.9624.3034.55
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 14 1:57.18 United States 1:57.182:21.50
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 5 3:22.07 United States 3:52.313:22.07

Quang Pham - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 38 48.70 52.18 United States 48.7049.9655.152:15.5051.43

Reid Flasinski - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 29 30.74 32.97 United States 44.3832.9332.9930.7433.00
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 24 3:41.40 United States 3:41.404:23.02
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 13 6:14.76 United States 6:57.256:14.76

Roberto Duarte - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 48 53.56 1:42.68 United States 2:44.911:15.451:07.69DNF53.56
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 23 16.74 United States 1:08.8016.74

Ryan Echols - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 42 58.10 1:05.06 United States 59.2358.101:04.971:10.981:15.61
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 26 42.00 United States 42.001:13.03
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 26 5:28.24 United States 6:45.315:28.24
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 14 DNF United States DNFDNF
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 15 6:42.66 United States DNF6:42.66
Pyraminx Final 8 16.51 30.92 United States 31.8035.6525.3116.5140.79

Siraj Ali - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Second 14 21.43 23.14 United States 24.3622.4321.4326.8322.62
First 17 21.48 23.61 United States 23.0825.3530.2522.4021.48
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 12 7.21 9.89 United States DNF8.429.847.2111.41
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 7 1:32.86 United States 1:45.891:32.86
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 4 3:19.90 United States 3:42.683:19.90
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 11 53.97 1:01.89 United States 53.9759.251:02.411:21.011:04.01
Pyraminx Final 3 10.71 11.79 United States 11.4112.1212.8810.7111.84

Stachu Korick - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 41 53.21 1:00.36 United States 53.211:00.8455.761:04.47DNF
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 24 17.19 United States 17.1917.92

Tim Reynolds - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Final 5 15.83 16.20 United States 15.8322.1515.8315.9316.84
Second 5 14.34 16.50 United States 16.2027.0515.5814.3417.72
First 5 14.34 16.44 United States 16.0018.7716.5216.8014.34
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 3 6.26 6.98 United States 6.7811.717.037.126.26
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 10 1:42.12 United States 1:42.121:44.06
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 8 3:34.87 United States 3:34.873:45.72
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 5 2:54.75 DNF United States 2:54.75DNFDNF
3x3x3 Fewest Moves Final 2 36 United States 36
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 6 32.93 36.75 United States 38.5632.9333.8442.6037.84
Clock Final 2 18.33 19.74 United States 18.3319.6221.28
Pyraminx Final 1 7.53 8.85 NAR United States 8.6112.597.7510.197.53
Magic Final 1 1.22 1.27 United States 1.241.301.221.263.18
Master Magic Final 2 2.98 3.74 United States 5.243.753.512.983.96
3x3x3 Multi-Blind Old Style Final 1 DNF United States DNF

Timothy Tran - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 34 34.19 41.60 United States 43.6541.8640.7842.1634.19

Vivan Pham - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 35 38.78 45.57 United States 45.5938.7851.6343.9047.21

Vuhuy Pham - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Final 7 15.34 16.67 United States 15.3416.8615.8419.1917.31
Second 7 15.44 16.92 United States 21.2116.1717.0615.4417.53
First 7 17.02 18.42 United States 17.0217.8720.3634.0317.02
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 8 1:37.53 United States 1:37.531:45.69
5x5x5 Cube Combined Final 6 3:27.68 United States 3:27.683:34.03
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 7 7:05.27 DNF United States DNFDNF7:05.27
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 4 29.43 34.03 United States 37.9036.6335.3730.0929.43

Wesley Young - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube First 46 1:11.56 1:26.62 United States DNF1:11.561:29.711:29.281:20.86

Will Bunting - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Second 20 21.83 31.26 United States 33.6630.4121.8333.6829.71
First 19 25.00 28.51 United States 27.9134.8128.8228.7925.00
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 10 7.19 9.06 United States 9.197.1910.408.839.16
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 9 DNF DNF United States DNFDNFDNF

Wuqiong Fan - China WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Second 19 23.80 27.44 China 24.5827.6423.8030.1130.56
First 20 24.84 28.70 China 30.6930.1627.2524.8428.70
2x2x2 Cube Combined Final 22 15.03 China 15.5515.03
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 22 2:49.44 China 2:49.443:44.77
3x3x3 Blindfolded Final 9 DNF DNF China DNFDNFDNF
3x3x3 Fewest Moves Final 4 48 NR China 48
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 12 1:03.17 China 1:07.001:03.17
Pyraminx Final 5 13.56 17.57 China 15.6618.0818.9713.56DNF

Zac Livesay - United States WCA profile

Event Round # Best Average Citizen of Solves
3x3x3 Cube Second 12 16.68 21.15 United States 24.0022.2716.6824.9117.19
First 15 18.87 21.63 United States 20.2725.4418.8722.6521.97
4x4x4 Cube Combined Final 9 1:38.98 United States 1:38.981:46.75
3x3x3 Fewest Moves Final 4 48 United States 48
3x3x3 One-Handed Combined Final 10 50.92 52.47 United States 1:44.1250.9251.5154.0351.88